Wednesday, July 22, 2009

Rejuvenating an orchard infested with Nematodes

Rejuvenating an orchard infested with Nematodes.

After applying almost all synthetic insecticides (Carbofuran, Carbendazim, Ridomill, Contaf and Bourdeux Mixture,.. to name a few) and with no remedy to cure root rot and yellowing of leaves in his orchard, a farmer friend approached me for advice, even though I am not a professional agriculture consultant. Top soil and sub soil at second feet were sent for soil test analysis. Test revealed heavy infestation of Nematodes.

About Nematodes:
They are migratory endoparasites which can survive in soil for 13 months without host plants. So, a minimum of 3 summer ploughs effectively suppresses the nematode population.

Nematodes complete their life cycle in 20 -25 days in the roots of the host plants. They invade at any portion of the root causing severe root damage resulting in poor water and mineral uptake by the plant.
  • Usage of biological agents such as Paecilomyces a bionematicide, Trichoderma Viridi and VAM are recommended to control nematodes.
  • Use of press mud @ 2 tons/acre in the field and application of Neem cake 500 gms per plant helps in suppressing the nematode population.
  • Crop rotation with Paddy, Sugarcane, green gram, sunhemp, cotton Etc., helps inreducing nematode population.
  • Growing antagonistic plants namely Tagets erecta (Tamil: Sendu malli, Sevanthi and Thulukka Samanthi) Crotalaria juncea (Sunhemp) as an inter crop in the field drastically reduces the nematode population.
Observations at our friend's orchard: Soil is lateorite and without organic matter. Root zone is affected by Nematodes and fungal pathogens. There is defoliation, debility, and dieback of leaves. Basin management is not proper. Micronutrients deficiency. Stray population of Mealy bugs noticed.

Remedial Measures suggested:

  1. Soil and phytosanitory management.
  2. Formation of bund around the plant. Apply adequate quantity of peat soil. Ensure that there should not be any water stagnation around the plant.
  3. Apply well-composted cow dung 4 Kgs + 250 gms of Neem cake + 250 gms of Pungan cake around the basin.
  4. Mix Pseudomonus 25 gms/plant + Trichoderma Viridi 25 gms/plant + Paecilomyces 25 gms/plant and apply it around the root zone of the plant.
  5. Spread leaf mulch around the basin.
  6. Growing Sunhemp as intercrop.
Then, after 15 days,
  1. Prepare 1 Litre Pseudomonus + ½ Kg Starter + 200Litres of water and mix it daily for 5- 6 days for fermentation.
  2. Prepare P.G.P.R 1 Kg + ½ Kg Starter + 200Litres of water and mix it daily for 5- 6 days for fermentation.
From the above preparations:
  • Take Sl.No.1 – 1 Litre and Sl.No.2 – 1 Litre and apply around the root zone of the affected plant every 15 days. Repeat the same for 3-4 times.
To control sucking pests and White flies:

  • Neem Kernals 5 Kg crushed and choked in 5 Litres of water for 2 days. From the above prepared solution take 2 ½ litres and mix it in 400 Litres of water and add 1 Kg Beauvarium + 1 Kg Verticillium + 1 Kg Jaggery stir them well and spray it (Foliar) on the plant.
To overcome Zn and Mn deficiency apply ZnSo4 and MnSo4 6 Gms each / plant.

Our friend strictly followed all the above suggestions, endured the agony of waiting for 3 months to see the final encouraging results.

Yellowing of leaves stopped, fresh green shoots appeared, root rot disappeared, consecutive soil test revealed a significant reduction of nematode population, and finally with a smile on his face, our friend who used to criticize organic cultivation practices, is now an organic farmer.

Vishnu Sankar

Organic Cultivation of Paddy

Organic cultivation of Paddy
  1. Treat the seeds with Pseudomonus & Viridi ( For 1 Kg of seeds mix 5 gms of Viridi and 10 gms of Pseudomonus).
  2. Apply P.G.P.R ½ Kg prepared solution per acre in paddy nursery and irrigate.
  3. Raise Sesbania Acculeata (Daincha) (Sow 20 Kg of seeds / Acre) in main field and at the time flowering plough them into the soil. If possible bring in Calotropis (Vellai Eruku) and Casia Oriculata (Aavarai)
  4. After leveling the field (Maram Adipu) apply Neem Cake 20 Kg + Rock Phosphate 100 Kg + Rice husk ash 100 Kg + Vermicompost 1000 Kgs ( If vermin is not available then add 100 Kgs Ground nut cake + 50 Kg Castor cake + 25 Kg Neem cake)
  5. During transplantation dip the root zone in P.G.P.R solution or in 100 litres of water pre mixed with1 kg Azos + 1 Kg Phospho + 1 Kg Viridi + 1 Kg Pseudo.
  6. 10 days after transplantation apply FYM 50 Kgs + Azos 5 Kg + Phospho 5 Kgs + Pseudo 5 Kgs + Viridi 5 Kgs and irrigate immediately
  7. Foliar application of P.G.P.A and B.M.C every 10 days alternately is necessary.
  8. 30th day – Spray Beauverium + Verticillium mixture.
  9. 45th day – Spray Pseudomonus
  10. 55th day – Spray B.M.C
  11. 60th day – Apply 200 litres of P.G.P.R per acre. Pour the solution near water inlet point of the field and ensure it reaches all corners of the field.
  12. 75th day – Spray Pseudomonus
  13. Thereafter spray Beauverium + Verticillium mixture in case of necessity.
  14. Spraying Pseudomonus at the time of panicle formation stage is vital to prevent 'Rice blast' infestation.

Go organic for your good health.

Vishnu Sankar

Saturday, July 18, 2009

Maintaining an 'Acid Lime' orchard

Acid Lime Cultivation :
  1. Trimming the dead branches.
  2. Cut the branches from the soil level to 45 – 60 cm height. The cut ends and the wide cracks in the barks of main stem and branches should be applied with Bordeux mixture paste using a brush.
  3. Apply well-composted cow dung 20 Kgs + 1 Kg Neem cake + 1 Kg Pungan cake + 30 kgs of composted green manure / Leaf mulch around the basin in a ½ feet depth ring like pit and close it. Repeat the same after 6 months.
  4. Prepare P.G.P.R and apply 2 Liters around the root zone of the plant and irrigate immediately.
  5. Growth of Lemon is induced well with the alternate foliar application of PGPA and BMC every 20 days.Foliar application in the following order of (1) B.M.C (2) Neem Kernal Extract (NKE) @ 5% + Baverium & Verticillum and (3) PGPA every 20 days will give good results in acid lime.
  6. For robust growth of plants, spray if necessary any amino acids like ‘Ghom’ an amino acid extract from seaweed 2 ml / litre (OR) Suryamin an amino acid extract from corn 2 ml / litre (OR) Panchakavya
  7. To overcome Micro Nutrient Deficiency: Departmental recommendations for Citrus : M.N Mixture: No.V ( For Citrus): Fe – 3.80%, Mn – 4.20%, Zn – 7.06%, B – 0.60%, Mo – 0.05%, Cu – 2.00%
  8. For overall M.N deficiency apply “M.N. Mixture for Lemon” (Agri. Dept. supply) @ 100 gms per the root zone .
  9. For specific Zn and Mg deficiency apply at root zone ZnSo4 and MgSo4 6 Gms each per plant.
  10. To overcome general Micro Nutrient Deficiency:(Foliar application) For overall M.N deficiency dissolve 1 Kg of “M.N. Mixture for Lemon” (Agri. Dept. supply) in 100 Ltrs. of water and spray liberally. (OR) ‘Multiplex Lemon special (chealated M.N mixture for foliar application) 1 Kg in 100 Ltrs of water.
  11. To overcome specific Micro Nutrient Deficiency:(Foliar application) The Zinc deficient plant exhibits the following symptoms: (1) the leaves turn thick and brittle with the margin turned upwards (2) the growing tips are with bunches of growth retarded small leaves in branch tips (3) young leaves show chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll) in patches and in advanced conditions, the green portion is found only along the sides of the veins with a yellowish background, giving a vein banding appearance to the leaves. Thus the network of veins in each leaf is very distinct. (4) small sized fruits with thick skin. To overcome Zinc deficiencies foliar spray of Zinc Sulphate 0.5% solution i.e. 5 gms of ZnSo4 in 1 Litre of water 3 times at 15 days interval (or) on March, July and October.
  12. Magnesium deficiency produces purple red leaves with sharply defined green veins. The deficiency also causes reddening of leaves. To overcome Magnesium deficiencies foliar spray of MgSo4 0.25% solution i.e. 2.5 gms of MgSo4 in 1 Litre of water 2 times at 15 days interval. For best results add 1% Urea in the above solution.
  13. Iron deficiency symptoms are yellowing of younger leaves with prominent green coloured veins, curling and burning on the margin of leaves, and stunted growth. To overcome Iron deficiency foliar spray of FeSo4 1% solution i.e. 1 gms of FeSo4 in 1 Litre of water 2 times at 15 days interval.
  14. Boron deficiency symptoms are thick and rough leaves with cracked leaf veins. To overcome Boron deficiencies foliar spray of (1) Solubor 0.2% solution i.e. 2 gms of Solubor in 1 Litre of water 2 times at 15 days interval OR (2) Boric acid 0.3% solution i.e. 3 gms of Boric acid in 1 Litre of water OR (3) ‘Borax’ (Sodium tetra borate) @ 0.3% i.e. 3gms in 1 litre of water.
  15. To control sucking pests like Leaf miners and leaf eating caterpillars (Larvae of Butterflies) & White flies apply the foliar spray of the below: I. Neem Kernals 5 Kg crushed and choked in 5 Litres of water for 2 days. II. From the above prepared solution take 2 ½ litres and mix it in 400 Litres of water and add 1 Kg Beauvarium + 1 Kg Verticillium + 1 Kg Jaggery, stir them well and spray it (Foliar) on the plant.
  16. Citrus Bacterial canker is a major disease on acid lime (Citrus aurantifoliat) and this can be managed by spraying 1 gram streptocycline(100 ppm) + 30 grams C.O.C (0.3%) in 10 Litres of water 4 times at monthly interval during monsoon after pruning.
  17. Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture to control Twig Blight disease.
  18. Stem canker caused by Phytophthora can be controlled in the initial stages by the excision of diseased bark followed by swabbing with Bordeaux paste.
  19. Chart for Chemical Fertilizer application: In this chart from 1st year onwards there is uniform increase of NPK every year (i.e) Urea 200 gm, Super 150 gm, Potash 65 gm, FYM 5 Kgs and cakes 2 Kgs.
(Qty in Kgs)

Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Age 6
Green Manure
Oil Cakes

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