Friday, December 25, 2009

'Commercially important Tree crops'- Seminar at Puliangudi on 08-12-2009

A section of the participants:

Sri.Dinkarkumar,IFS, DFO, Soc.For, Tirunelveli

Sri.Gomathinayagam, Organic Agriculturist, Puliangudi

Sri.V.Anthonysamy, Organic Agriculturist, Puliangudi

Thursday, December 10, 2009

Densely planted Kumil (Gmelina arborea) Trees

Gmelina arborea (Tamil: Kumil) and Gliricidia as bund / border crop.
Please avoid this kind of very close planting.
Only the trees planted with wider spacing attained 60-90cm* girth, whereas others reached only around 45cm

Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Dalbergia sissoo (Tamil:Sisu) Tree:

Some Sissoo Tree pictures: (D.O.P: 20-09-03)
Picture taken on 17-10-2009

Sissoo D.O.P 20-9-2003,
Picture taken on 17-10-2009

Some Melia dubia (Malai Vembu in Tamil, Hebbevu in Kannada, Konda Veppa in Telugu) Pictures:

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Some Kumil pictures (Gmelina arborea):

Gmelina arborea - Kumil Seeds:

Kumil in farm nursery:

Injury to the bark at the age of 1 year:

The above same injury leads to this kind of growth at the age of 7 years:

Kumul and Kaya:


Kumil and Rosewood:

Thursday, November 26, 2009

Some Ppt presentations and Photos from the TDTGA seminar conducted on 20/11/2009 at Tirunelveli:


A sample slide from the above presentation:

Augur Demo:

Demo of "Tractor Mounted Post Hole Digger":

Presentation by Agri. Engn. S.E., Er.Tamilselvan:

Section of the crowd:

F.E.O' s of Tirunelveli and Tuticorin:

Address by Conservator Sri.Rampathy, IFS.,:

Chief Guest planting a tree:

Sunday, November 8, 2009

Fast growing tree species for economically important commercial timber cultivation:

Dear friends,

The Forest Department of Tamilnadu, India., recommends the following list of economically important fast growing tree species for commercial timber cultivation.

Before further reading, please have a look at our list in this link which was shortlisted in consultation with T.N forest college scientists, IFGTB scientists and some reputed forest officials of CCF, APCCF and PCCF cadres.

Forest Department's recommendation comes in the FAQ section of their website (Click to view).

What are economically important fast growing tree species?

  1. Ailanthus excelsa - (Perumaram, Pee maram, Peematti in Tamil)
  2. Melia dubia - (Malai Vembu in Tamil)
  3. Kaya senegalensis - (Kaya or Senegal Mahogany in Tamil)
  4. Anthocephalus cadamba - (Vellai Kadambu in Tamil)
  5. Alstonia scholaris - (English - Blackboard tree, Indian devil tree, Ditabark, Milkwood pine, White cheesewood, Seven-leaved milk plant and Pokok pulai, Tamil - Ezhilai-Palai)
  6. Albizia richardiana - (Tamil name: ???? Readers are requested to help)
  7. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius - Common name: Pink Cedar, Acrocarpo, Australian ash and Indian ash. Tamil: Kalingi, Kurangadi, Malai konnai, Mallaykone, Mallekone and Nelrai.
  8. Casuarina junghuhniana - (Tamil: Indonesian savukku or Junguniana Savukku)
  9. Bamboo (Varieties: Malocanna baccifera, Bambusa nutans, B. Bamboos, B. tulda, B. vulgaris, B. Balcooa)
Other than the above, the following tree varieties are also classified as fast growing and economically viable for commercial timber cultivation:

10. Gmelina arborea (Kumil, Perungumil, Kumula maram in Tamil)
Grewia tiliaefolia (Thadasu, Sadachi in Tamil)
12. Albizia falcataria (Kattumaram in Tamil)
13. Acacia auriculiformis (Pencil Tree. Tamil: Kathi savukku,Elai karuvel)
14. Eucalyptus - (Tamil: Thaila maram)

The following trees though not comes under fast growing category, are strongly recommended for their timber value:

Pterocarpus santalinus - (Red Sanders.Tamil: Sivappu Santhanam)
16. Pterocarpus marsupium - (Indian Kino Tree. Tamil: Vengai)
17. Santalum album
- (Sandal wood. Tamil: Santhana maram)

You might have noticed that most of the trees listed above were already find mentioned somehow or other in this blogspot. The unrepresented ones will be given due importance in the coming months.

Some readers may be wondering why I have not included,

Tectona grandis - The common Teak,
Rose wood,

Haldinia Cardifolia (Tamil : Manja Kadambu ),
Caesalpinia sapppan (Tamil:
Swietenia macrophylla
- The Peruvian Mahogany,
Thespesia populnea -
(Tamil: Poovarasu)
Hardwickia binnata - (Tamil: Aachaa)
and so many other trees of some reasonable value in the above list.

Dear friends, that is a different story, worthy enough to allocate a separate post for each variety.

Vishnu Sankar


afforestation: The establishment of a forest or plantation in an area where the preceding vegetation or land use was not forest – compare with “Reforestation”.

agroforestry: Agroforestry is the practice of combining agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems.

biodiversity: The variety and abundance of life forms, functions and structures of plants, animals and other living organisms on earth. It includes genetic differences among species, the variety of species that live within a particular area (ecosystem) and the many such ecosystems or homes that exist on the planet.


1. Ecology The total dry organic matter at a given time of living organisms of one or more species per unit area (species biomass) or of all the species in the community (community biomass)
2. The living or dead weight of organic matter in a tree, stand, or forest in units such as living or dead weight, wet or dry weight, etc.
3. Harvesting the wood product obtained from in-woods chipping of all or some portion of trees including limbs, tops, and unmerchantable stems, usually for energy production.

board foot: (bd ft) The amount of wood contained in an unfinished board 1 inch thick, 12 inches long and 12 inches wide (2.54 cm x 30.5 cm x 30.5 cm).

carbon offset: The planting of trees on non-forested land such that the uptake of carbon dioxide from the growing trees will offset the production of carbon dioxide from industrial sources.

carbon sequestration: The incorporation of carbon dioxide into permanent plant tissues.

co-management agreements: The sharing of power, responsibility and benefits between the Government and resource users; provides a middle ground upon which the two can meet and cooperate.

community forest: A forest owned and generally managed by a community, the members of which share its benefits.

community forestry: Managing forests with the expressed intent of benefiting neighbouring communities. See also “social forestry”.

cubic metre: A unit of volume that measures 1 x 1 x 1 metres, most often used for volumes of standing timber or otherwise unsawn timber.

database: A collection of data stored in a systematic manner such that the data can be readily retrieved, modified and manipulated to create information, most often computerised.

deforestation: The removal of a forest where the land is put to a non-forest use.

dendrology: the scientific study of trees and woody plants, A branch of botany devoted to the study of trees and their identifying characteristics.

ecosystem: A self-regulating natural community of living things interacting with one another and with their non-living physical environment.

ecotourism: Travel undertaken to sites or regions of unique natural quality, or the provision of services to facilitate such travel.

forest: An ecosystem characterised by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover, often consisting of stands varying in characteristics such as species, composition, structure, age classs, and associated processes, and may include meadows, streams, fish, and wildlife. (Note that forests include special designations such as industrial forests, nonindustrial private forests, plantations, protection forests).

forest inventory: A set of objective sampling methods designed to quantify the spatial distribution, composition and rates of change of forest parameters within specified levels of precision for the purposes of management.

forest reserve: An area designated under a forest act in which timber production is allowed but not conversion to agriculture or other non-forest uses.

forestry: The profession embracing the science, art and practice of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources for human benefit and in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values. (agroforestry, urban forestry, industrial forestry, non-industrial forestry, and wilderness and recreation forestry).

fuelwood: Wood used for conversion into some form of energy, eg, cooking fires, charcoal production, energy-generating plants.

greenbelt: A park-like strip of unoccupied land with little or no development, usually surrounding or partially surrounding urban areas.

greenhouse effect: The warming effect exerted by the atmosphere upon the earth because the atmosphere (mainly its water vapour and carbon dioxide) absorbs radiant energy from the earth and re-emits infrared radiation or heat.

lumber: The sawn product from a tree – synonym is sawn wood.

natural forest: A forest in nearly natural condition, without any direct human intervention.

plantation forest: A forest or stand composed mainly of trees established by planting or artificial seeding.

reforestation: The re-establishment of forest cover either naturally or artificially. Note reforestation usually maintains the same forest type and is done promptly after the previous stand or forest was removed.

roundwood: A length of cut tree generally having a round cross section, such as a log.

silviculture: The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, health and quality of forests to meet the diverse needs and values of society.

social forestry: Forestry programmes that purposefully and directly involve local people, their values and their institutions (also called development forestry, community forestry).

sustainable development:
1. Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
2. Sustainable development is used to mean: improving the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems .

timber Wood: other than fuelwood, potentially useable for lumber.

tonne 1000 kg: in the context of “tonnes of fuelwood” in this document for air-dried hardwood, 1 tonne is approx. 1.38 cubic metres of wood.

urban forestry: The art, science and technology of managing trees and forest resources in and around urban community ecosystems for the physiological, sociological, economic and aesthetic benefits trees provide society.

watershed: A region or land area drained by a single stream, river, or drainage network.

(to continue)

Wednesday, November 4, 2009

Workshop on selection and cultivation of Tree crops

Dear Friends,

TDTGA's main objective is to impart knowledge about tree cultivation to the farming community by conducting periodical meetings, seminars and workshops. It acts as a bridge, connecting the hapless farmers with scientists, forest officials, nursery people and wood based industries of both public and private sector.

For the month of November '09, we have joined hands with Forest Extension Division of the Dept. of Forests to conduct a workshop on tree cultivation. The program details are:

"Workshop on selection and cultivation of Tree crops suitable for Paper, Plywood and Biomass Energy Industries"

  • Venue: Tamil Valarchi Panpaatu Manram, Near Central Excise Office, NGO Colony, Palayankottai, Tamilnadu, India.
  • Date: 20 /11 / 2009, Friday, Time: 10.30 AM to 4.30PM
  • Presided by: Mr.Irulandi, IFS., Chief Conservator of Forests, Forest Extension Division, Chennai.
Programme in brief:
  • Success stories of "Tree crops in Private Lands Scheme (TCPL)" Ppt presentation of pictures taken from the fields of our members.
  • Speech by two successful tree growers of our area.
  • "Selection and cultivation of Tree crops suitable for Paper mills and Biomass Energy Industries" - Speech by the Chief Guest Mr.Irulandi, IFS., C.C.F, Forest Extension Division, Chennai.
  • "Sustainable Agriculture" - Cultivating Tree varieties suitable for 'Wood fired Biomass Power companies" - speech and Ppt presentation by Sri.K.Chidambara Manickam. Assistant General Manager, M/s. Auro Mira Energy Company P.Ltd., Chennai. (This company has obtained a 15 MW license for developing a Biomass project near Oothumalai village in Tirunelveli district and the project is expected to be commissioned by mid 2010.)
  • "Cultivation of trees under contract farming for M/s.Auro Mira Energy Company P.Ltd and the supply of seedlings at subsidized rate, availability of credit facilities, crop Insurance cover Etc.," by Mr. G.Ramasubramaniyan, Manager, Plantations Division, M/s.Auro Mira Energy Company P.Ltd., Chennai.
  • Q & A session: Members doubts on site selection, crop selection, species selection, cultivation technology, Govt. subsidies, marketing., Etc., will be cleared by the visiting dignitaries and the C.C.F.
  • Crop of this month: Cultivation of 'Green Vulgaris' Bamboo and Anthocephalus cadamba.
Members are kindly requested to participate in this workshop without fail.

TDTGA is actively lobbying for the farmers cause and represents the interests and concerns of members and enables them to take advantage of opportunities in agroforestry and in commercial timber production. So become a member now.

Nonmembers can register for membership at the venue itself and are eligible to participate.

All are welcome.

Vishnu Sankar

Tuesday, November 3, 2009

Casuarina field on Fire

Dear Friends,

We all know that Casuarina sheds lot of leaves and branches. Their gradual incorporation into the soil leads to increased organic matter (O.M) and organic carbon (O.C) content of the soil. In addition to tree's natural leaf shedding, farmers used to prune the trees to allow more sun light into the field and to induce fast vertical growth of the tree.

Usually after about a year, the accumulation of these organic matter suppress the weed growth totally, saving the farmer from deweeding expenses. In my field, I liked to walk on these cushion of soft dried matter, enjoying every moment, each and every twig breaking under my feet, raised my spirits considerably.

Unfortunately, during a gale, overhead low tension power lines that crosses in a far corner of my field brushed against each other spewing a shower of fire on the dried matter below. Since this happened at night, fire spread unchecked to about 3 acres. When came to know of this next day, we copiously irrigated the field to save the crop from dehydration. Even on closer scrutiny the tree exhibits no trace of damage due to the fire. It remained as fresh and as green as it looks normally for about 10 days.

Then the drying of leaves, stems and branches started on the entire field. A second and third irrigation did not stop the crop from drying. I summoned farmers to my field, who had experienced these kind fire hazards in their crop also. They advised me to harvest the crop immediately to save it from further moisture loss. They opined that Casuarina being a very sensitive crop, it can not withstand even heat radiation, let alone fire, from nearby burning field. Some of them even attempted steps like drenching the whole plant with water in addition to normal flood irrigation. All ended in vain.

Agricultural Field Officer from TNPL, Plantations division, visited the field and declined to procure the wood since the age of the crop was 1 year and 9 months, a young crop with low cellulose content which is not suitable for paper making.

Finally the ill fated crop was harvested manually and dispatched to M/s.Dharani Sugars & Chemicals Ltd., for chipping. (See: Wood Chipper). The chipped wood is used there as substitute for the conventional bagasse for heating the boiler. The company imports raw sugar from South America hence the shortage for bagasse. They offered
Rs.2300/Ton and the payment was immediate.

Cutting, Loading and transportation costs came to about

Average yield obtained for this Casuarina at the age of 1 Year 9 months,
which bore the brunt of fire, with bone dry wood was
17 Tons/acre.

This is for the record.

  • The fallen Casuarina leaves and branches should be ploughed back into the soil using mechanical power weeders yearly twice as recommended by TNPL.
  • Never, never plant Casuarina under power lines.
  • Insure the crop without fail.
  • Harvest and sell the crop immediately after the fire and wait for none. Each and every day is crucial since the invisible loss on account of moisture will be huge.
Readers are requested to chip in their valuable comments on this subject.


Vishnu Sankar

Sunday, October 25, 2009

Coconut climber

Dear friends,

I've been receiving many calls about the coconut climber developed by the TNAU, Coimbatore, ever since few photos of it were published in this blog. Most of the questions were related to its operational method and efficiency. I hope by watching the two video files (TNAU property) given below, their doubts will be cleared.

Coconut climber - (Climbing up):

Coconut climber - (Climbing down):

With continuous practice and daily actual usage, anybody can attain the 'speed of climbing' captured in the above videos.

Please approach Agriculture Engineering Department of your area to avail government subsidy and to get the address of the approved dealer in your district supplying this tool.

Total cost of the Tree climber...Rs.2500
Less 50% Govt. Subsidy .....Rs.1250
Amount payable by DD .......Rs.1250
(You may be required to pay transport costs)

Vishnu Sankar

Friday, October 9, 2009

Tree Growers Association

(click on the picture for an enlarged view)

Dear Friends,

We all know that there was a long felt need to form a ‘tree growers’ association’ in this part of southern Tamilnadu as a means of facilitating extended forestry services to farmers.

To materialize this dream, the Forest Extension Division of the Department of Forests invited some well known farmers who are already doing Silviculture and agroforestry in Tirunelveli district and they were given the task of creating a private tree growers association.

In accepting the challenge, a core committee presided by me was formed to form an association with the name "Tirunelveli District Tree and Medicinal plants growers Association" and get it registered under Society Registration Act of Tamilnadu.

The task was accomplished and office bearers were elected to pursue the following objectives of the Association:


Invitation for the First General body meeting:

(click on the Logo to enlarge)

Venue: Tamil Valarchi Panpaatu Manram, NGO Colony, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India.

Date: 14 /10 / 2009, Wednesday, Time: 3.00 PM to 6.30PM

Presided by: Mr.Irulandi, IFS., Chief Conservator of Forests,
Forest Extension Division, Chennai.


  • Action plan for 2009 -10.
  • Forming a steering committee to popularize the objectives of the Association.
  • Identifying trees that are suitable for cultivation in Tirunelveli District.
  • Speech by two highly successful tree growers of our area.
  • Contract farming.
  • Growing trees to generate electricity from its' biomass.
  • Screening the past US Vice President Mr. Al Gore's film on the effects of 'Global Warming": 'An Inconvenient truth'
  • Ppt presentation about the cultivation of 'Green Vulgaris' Bamboo, and Anthocephalus cadamba.
Members are kindly requested to participate in this General body meeting without fail.

Nonmembers can register for membership at the venue itself and are eligible to participate.

All are welcome.

Vishnu Sankar

Sunday, October 4, 2009

Timber Tree selection - A Check List

Dear Friends,

In general, farmers who wish to go for tree crops pay more attention to the cost of plants at the time of planting and the revenue they get at the time of felling the tree.

Tree cultivation should be done with affection, love, care, deep respect, awe and reverence.
Trees are very special living beings in fact our close relatives. What we breathe out they breathe in, and what they breathe out we breathe in. To sum up, tree cultivation is a sacred act nothing short of care you give to your little child.

Please bear in mind that you are into a very long term cultivation plan and any wrong selection of tree will hurt you badly. There are many factors which will greatly influence the growth of your selected tree. So try to gather as much knowledge as you do before starting any new business.

I have given here below a simple check list for your safety:

1. Do "Soil Test" and "Irrigation water analysis" and select trees that suits your soil type and water quality.

2. Select trees according to your land type. Irrigated land or Rainfed land.

3. Determine spacing for 'Bulk cropping' or Bund / border cropping. ( Know about maturity age of the tree, canopy cover and provide enough width to use mechanical weeders.)

4. Raise some Nitrogen fixing / Leguminous trees as well as deciduous trees also, in borders or among the main crop to increase soil fertility.
Casuarina varieties [Savukku in Tamil],
Albizia varieties [Vagai in Tamil],
Acacia auriculiformis [Kathi Karuvel in Tamil],
Acacia leucophloea [Velvael in Tamil],

Gliricidia sepium, [Seemai Kondrai in Tamil]
Leucaena leucocephala [Savundal /Subapul in Tamil]
Dalbergia sissoo [Sisu in Tamil],
Sesbania sesban [Sithakathi / Sembai in Tamil],
grandiflora Etc., to name a few.

5. Know about 'invasive plants' (Invasive plants are introduced species that can thrive in areas beyond their natural range of dispersal. These plants are characteristically adaptable, aggressive, and have a high reproductive capacity. Their vigor combined with a lack of natural enemies often leads to outbreak populations.)

Leucaena leucocephala [Savundal /Subapul in Tamil] and
Morinda corcia [Nuna/ Manja nethi in Tamil]
on't get confused with Morinda citrifolia which is called as 'Noni'}
are some examples.
They provide good timber, fodder and firewood, yet difficult to control because of their invasive character.

6. Avoid trees that cause a nutrition depletion in the soil and allelopathic in nature. (Eucalyptus tree for example)

7. Some trees acts as Trap crop
( Ex: Gmelina arborea (Tamil : Kumil, Kumul.) So proper care in pest management is essential when you plant them near vegetable or Horticulture crops.
Also avoid planting of trees which are natural host to insect pests, near
vegetable or Horticulture crops. (Neem is an alternative host to 'Tea mosquitoes'. So avoid planting them near cashew and Mango orchards).

8. Acquire basic knowledge about :
Hedge crops,
Trees used as wind breaker,
Trees as fence,
Trees for fodder,
Trees for shade,
Trees for fruits,
Trees for bio fuels,
Trees for timber,
Trees for medicine,
Trees for match industry,
Trees for paper mills,
Trees for plywood industry,
Trees for wood fired biomass power companies,
Trees for gasifier to produce power
Trees for carpentry,
Trees for perfumes, Etc., Etc.,

9. Intercropping and Mixed cropping: (See crop combinations)
Undoubtedly Casuarina is the best tree for intercropping and mixed cropping. It can be successfully grown with short duration trees like
Ailanthus excelsa (Perumaram, Pee maram in Tamil), Gmelina arborea (Tamil : Kumil, Kumul, Melia dubia (Malai Vembu in Tamil) Etc., and with long duration trees like Teak, Mahogany, Rose wood, Red Sanders Etc.,

See Link1 for Melia dubia + Gmelina arborea mixed cropping.

Both Gmelina arborea and Melia Dubia trees have more or less same maturity age of approx. 10 to 12 years. So better select any one variety for bulk mixed planting. Normally, short and long duration tree crops are advised to plant in alternate rows so that the later establishes well after the removal of short duration trees.

Melia dubia and Gmelina arborea trees can be planted in alternate rows with a spacing of 10' to 12 feet as there is found to be no noticeable root competition among them and can be harvested at the same time.

Farmers are practicing hundreds of such tree combinations as trials and knowledge is plenty among them. You may not get tree combination suggestions from our Universities, Forest colleges Etc., in writing here in India, because they have not yet completed their trials and we should not expect ratification from them for all sorts of combinations. For instance, to get a complete result involving Dalbergia latifolia (the East Indian Rose Wood -Thothakathi in Tamil) you have to wait for a min of 70 years.

10.Pruning method: When to prune and How to prune?
(Excess pruning will lead to bending of tree in the case of Sissoo and death of young plant itself in the case of
Gmelina arborea (Tamil : Kumil, Kumul.)

11. Trees that tend to dominate in mixed cropping but grow well in mono cropping like
Dalbergia sissoo (Sisu in Tamil)

12. Trees that grow better in borders and in mixed cropping but show a rather slow growth in mono cropping like
Gmelina arborea (Tamil : Kumil, Kumul.)

13. Maturity age of a tree. (Learn, when the heart wood formation starts and when it is ideal to fell a tree) For example, in the case of Pterocarpus santalinus (Red Sanders) the heart wood hardening starts from 18th year and completes by 25 – 30 years.

14. Hardness of heart wood depends upon the soil structure and quality.

15. Preharvest preparations, harvesting techniques, Reducing waste during harvest , Post Harvest technology, some need shade drying, storage period Etc..

16. Get prior permission from the Department of Forests to cut any trees even if it is in your own land and prior permission is also necessary for transporting them to the desired destination.

17. Carbon credit


Vishnu Sankar

Saturday, September 19, 2009

Albizia falcataria (Tamil : Kattumaram)

Name of the Tree - Albizia falcataria (Tamil : Kattumaram)
Legume Family ; Leguminosae (Mimosoideae)

Albizia falcataria is one of the fastest-growing trees in the world. It is widely planted in tropical countries including India.

In Kanyakumari District of Tamilnadu, India, it is called
'Kattumaram' since it is used for making catamarans and boats. There, it is highly regarded as shade tree for Pepper, Clove and Coffee plantations. Growers call it as 'Albizia' also, although the term refers to other varieties such as:

Albizia amara (Tamil: Usilamaram)
Albizia lebbeck, East Indian Walnut
(Tamil:Vagai) and
Albizia odoratissima (Tamil:Sila Vagai)
( In Tamil 'Dalbergia paniculata' is also called as Vagai but the correct term is 'Pani vagai')

Albizia is a genus of about 150 species of mostly fast-growing subtropical and tropical trees. Scientific name can be spelled with double 'z' also.

Albizia falcataria is a large deciduous tree 24 to 30m tall, with a thin, very broad crown of dull green foliage often umbrella shaped, with numerous small leaflets (the specific name, "falcate" or "curved like a sickle" refers to the leaflets) and narrow, flat brown seed pods that split open easily under favorable conditions.

These lightweight seedpods contain abundant seeds, which are easily blown by winds. Hence, the tree regenerates so easily by this way of natural seeding on any clearing and becoming naturalized. It is considered as 'invasive pest' in some areas because of its easy spreading and germination quality.

Altitudinal range 0 to 1200 metres MSL.
Rainfall regime - Uniform Dry season: 3 months
Mean Annual Temp. 28 - 34F

Soil: Tree is adaptable to medium texture soil with good drainage facility. Grows best on deep, well-drained fertile soils, such as friable clay loam. Does better on alkaline than acid soils; not suited to dry sands. Growth is very fast under moist soil conditions.

Nursery: Seeds per Kilogram 38,000 to 44,000
Seeds storage limit: Airtight for up to one year
Germination and growth: Germinates in 2 to 5 days. Nursery raised plants will attain plantable size in 4 to 6 months.

Spacing: Recommended tree spacing is 10' x 10' @ 400 trees approx./acre so that trunk grows straight and the crown closes quickly, shading out weeds. But in my view,
the above mentioned closer spacing will create problems like root and canopy competition in fertile soils with good irrigation potential. So, a safer spacing plan should be a min of 15' x 15' for bulk planting and 10' for border planting

It is a strong light-demanding tree.

Coppice capability: The trees coppice vigorously and can be harvested in plantations on a 12 - 15 year cycle from coppice growth. (There are records of 8 year cycles also.) They are shallow-rooted and very susceptible to uprooting and breakage of branches by strong winds.

'N' fixing capacity: Nodules of N-fixing bacteria occur on the roots.

Silviculture: A well-grown tree will attain 24 - 30 meters in height. Growth records of this tree in good soil and high rainfall are as much as 5m in height in a year, 10m in 3 years, 15m in 4 years and 30m in 12 years.

In the plains, the most vigorous trees increased in trunk diameter about 4 - 6cm per year. Trees 2 years old may attain 15 cm DBH, while 10-year old trees may attain and 60 cm DBH. (Diameter in Breast Height.)

Production: Normal production Volume is 10 cu.metres. But, young plantations have yielded mean annual increment of 30 m3/yr in 12–15 yr rotations assuming 70% survival and establishment at 3 x 3 m.

Timber: Heartwood light brown with a slight pinkish or yellowish tinge; not clearly demarcated from the sapwood. Saws well but growth stresses often cause pinching of the blade. Sharp tools are required to cut this soft wood cleanly. The timber dries rapidly with little or no degrades.

Density. Lightweight with S.G: 0.30 - 0.46,

Natural durability of the timber: The wood is not durable and is vulnerable to attack by termites and powder-post beetles. Lumber stains rather rapidly.
Even though Albizia falcataria has many uses, this fast-growing hardwood plantation tree is not fully utilized because of problems such as warpage, cracking, bending, and its low durability.

Uses: It is a promising source of pulpwood. Rated excellent for plywood, fiberboard and particle-board. Used for veneer core stock pallets, boxes, crates, furniture components, matches and for the construction of catamarans / boats.
There is a good demand for this timber all through the year because of its many uses.

For content source and pictures visit: Albizia falcataria


Vishnu Sankar

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