Thursday, June 14, 2012

Casuarina junghuhniana for sustainable energy development:

Some snippets from IFGTB 'Tree Growers Mela -2012:
Part - 6
Casuarina junghuhniana for sustainable energy development:
 
A detailed report on 'Casuarina junghuhniana for sustainable energy development' is the joint work of Mr.S.K.Shanmuga sundaram, IFS, Present Chief Conservator of Forests, Tirunelveli (Former Head of the Department of Biodiversity, IFGTB) and Dr.R.Gopalan and presented as Power point by the former professionally to the audience, who are mostly farmers, on the concluding day of the Tree growers Mela - 2012.

This report analyzes in detail the issues involved in "Energy management, Growth Vs Energy, Types of energy, Energy Resources, Energy efficiency, Current Energy Demand, Energy consumption, Energy scenario in India and Biomass power".

From the above presentation, I would like to bring to our readers the main subject of 'Utilizing Casuarina for Biomass power production' only. 


This report is generated from the PowerPoint presentation of Mr.S.K.Shanmuga Sundaram,IFS and the contents in its entirety and  the projections / assessment made here are his personal views only.

Those readers who may differ on the issues of yield, profit from Casuarina junghuhniana, matters relating to energy conversion and the quantum of power production are requested to express their views here to upgrade this article for the benefit of the fellow readers.


CASUARINA – A BIO RESOURCE :
  •  A tree species belonging to Casuarinacea. 
  •  Fast growing species, having multi utility value. 
  •  Calorific value = 5000 k.cal.  (Approx.)
  • Wood density is 698 kg/m³ (irrigated), 703 kg/m³ (rainfed). 
  • Preferred by farmers for Agro forestry and Farm land afforestation.
 CURRENT UTILITY OF CASUARINA :
  •         HOUSEHOLD FUEL, PULP WOOD,  
  •         SCAFFOLDING, CHARCOAL MAKING,   
  •         BIO SHIELD (SHELTER  BELT, WIND BREAK)  
  •         PRODUCTION OF POWER
EXTENT OF CULTIVATION :
  •  Casuarina is cultivated through out South India. 
  • 80% of plantations are in the coastal areas in AP, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry.
  • Area planted – 5 lac ha. Inland cultivation data deficient.
  • Rotation 4 years.
  • Inter cropping practiced in Ist year of planting. 
  • Preferable species Casuarina junghuhniana, a drought tolerant and high yielding variety. 
  • Espacement 1x1m (4000 trees per acre).
YIELDING PATTERN :
Yield varies by
   1. Locations
   2. cultivation techniques adopted
   3. Period of rotation
   4. Irrigation facilities
   5. Fertilizer application
   6. Soil fertility
   7. Rainfall pattern
   8. 40 to 80 tonnes per acre in 4 years and 30 to 40 tonnes per acre  under rainfed conditions is reported.
 
ECONOMICS OF CASUARINA CULTIVATION :

Usage of high yield clones, 4 year rotation, 1x1m espacement, Coastal

belt, Irrigated land, yearly farm yard manure application, yearly twice

weeding and manual pruning of branches gives the following revenue:

      
      
     Total income (sale of pruned materials & poles) = 2,50,000 /-*      (Average yield 80 Tons x Rs.3000 + 10000)

     
      Total expenditure (including watch and ward) = 75,000 /-
 


       Net Income = 1,75,000 /- 

* Data for high yielding variety with the specified field conditions.

CASUARINA vs ELECTRICITY:

      CALORIFIC VALUE = 5000 Kcalories

One kilowatt per hour = 859.845kilo calories.

Energy conversion efficiency of casuarina = o.25.

The power production by using One ton of casuarina =

5000x1000x1/4x/859.845 = 1453.75 kwh

 
      5MW Power Mill (Plant Load Factor=0.9)
      Per day production =1000X5X24X0.9 =108000kwh
      Per year production =108000x365 =39420000kwh
      Casuarina wood required per year
      =39420000/1453.75=27116.07911m.ton.
      Per day requirement =74.29 rounded to75m.tons.
      Area required@productivity of 60m.tons per acre
      with 4 year rotation period =452acres
      For continuous operation =452x4=1808acres
      Per day area required =1.23acres(0.5ha)
      Total no. of blocks in Tamil nadu=397
      Area required for cutivation of casuarina for operation of

5M.W.power mill in all the blocks=397x1808=717776 acres
      Power production capacity=397x5=1985mw. 
BIOMASS POWER PLANTS:

 
VIABILITY OF POWER PLANTS:
Cost of electricity per unit=4.65
Revenue to be realized per year=39420000x4.65= Rs 183303000
Cost of wood =27116x3000= 81348000
Profit margin=183303000-81348000=Rs 101955000
Viability is facilitated by many other factors.

INCENTIVES TO THE MILLS: 
     1. Capital subsidy @Rs 20/lakhs/MW subject to Maximum of 5 MW.


2. Fiscal incentives in terms of excise duty concession, reduced


customs duty.



3. 80% accelerated depreciation for IT purpose in I year of


installation.



4. Tax holidays for 10 years for profit from the project.


5. Power purchase @Rs4.65/unit as per tariff order of TNERC.



6. Concessional wheeling charges of 3% for distance upto 25 km and



6% for distance beyond 25 km for captive use.


ADDITIONAL BENEFITS TO THE MILLS:
  •       Bio char.
  •       Activated charcoaL
  •       CDM.
  •       Prevent migration.
  •       Additional employment.
  •       Land improvement.
  •       Theft, Prevention of transmission loss.
  •       Protection of environment.

SCOPE FOR MAXIMISING ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
- BLOCK WAR POWER MILL IN TAMIL NADU. 
- REDUCTION IN TRANSPORTATION COST. 
TRANSMISSION LOSS REDUCED. 
PARTICIPATION BY LOCAL COMMUNITY. 
COST EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION. 
BETTER LAND USE STRATEGY. 
ENABLES ENERGY SECURITY OF THE BLOCK. 
ENSURES GREEN AND CLEAN ENERGY. 
ADDITIONAL REVENUE TO FARMING COMMUNITY.
STRATEGY TO BE ADOPTED:
1. START PRODUCER COMPANIES IN EACH BLOCK. 
2. ALL FARMERS AND CONSUMERS ARE TO BE MADE AS
-MEMBERS,WITH SHARE PARTICIPATION. 
3. GOVT. IS ALSO A MEMBER WITH MAXIMUM SHARE VALUE OF 
RS.25-CRORES. 
4. ROLE TO BE ASSIGNED TO BLOCK LEVEL TREE  GROWERS. 
5. EFFORTS TO MAKE IT AS A ‘CDM ‘ PROJECT. 
6. TIE UP WITH TREE GROWERS TO PROCURE WOOD SIMILAR TO
-CANE PROCUREMENT BY SUGAR MILLS. 
7. VENTURE CAPITAL  FOR ERECTION AND RAISE PLANTATIONS 
8. CAUTION FOR DIVERSION OF LAND  FROM AGRICULTURE AT THE 
-COST OF FOOD SECURITY. 
9. SUBSIDY AND SOFT LOAN ARRANGEMENT THROUGH NEW AND 
-RENEWABLE ENERGY DEPARTMENT.  
 
BENEFITS TO MEMBERS (Farmers): 
   
1.Members (read as farmers) will initially receive only such value for the
 produce or products pooled and supplied as the directors may determine.
 
2. The withheld amount may be disbursed later either in cash or in kind 
or by allotment of equity shares.
 
3. Members will be eligible to receive bonus shares and patronage bonus
(akin to dividend).  

(Concluded). 



    Some points to discuss: 
 

1. Readers are requested to send their opinion and corrections required in 
 
the given report to my email. 
 
2. Clarifications regarding some contentious issues like yield and profit from 
 
Casuarina junghuhniana and matters relating to energy conversion and power 
 
production will be sent to the above authors on your behalf and their replies 
 
will be published in this blog.


Links for some of my older posts regarding Biomass:
  



Regards,

A.Vishnu Sankar.

4 Comentários:

Anonymous said...

Relationships with farmers are very important. “It isn’t necessarily ‘if you build it, the farmers will come,’ you’ve got to have trusting relationships with them, because they are making the tough choice of entering into a five-year contract to grow a new crop when they could be growing something else, and they need to know that there’s something at the end of the tunnel; that the crop can be used.”

Anonymous said...

In US they have started to promote 'Miscanthus' for Biomass Power Plants. What is its name in Tamil?

A.Vishnu Sankar said...

Proposed Energy Crops Description GE Traits in Development:

Switchgrass: A tall grass native to the Midwestern United States faster growing and higher yield.

Miscanthus: A weedy, tall grass (up to ten feet),native to Asia, faster growing, drought tolerance higher yield.

Poplar: A hardwood tree native to North
America, reduced lignin content for processing ease, faster growing.

Eucalyptus: Fast-growing tree native to
Australia, weedy elsewhere, freeze tolerance, rapid growth.

Sorghum: A major staple grain produces biomass instead of food.

“Energycane” A GE variety of sugarcane genetically engineered to produce biomass instead of sugar.

Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine),Pinus radiata (Monterrey Pine) : Important industrial forestry species native to the Southeastern US and California, respectively (P. radiata is weedy in Chile), faster growth to reduce time between harvests.

For more information: Green Gold: Why cellulosic ethanol is a threat to farmers and the planet.

Link:http://www.foodfirst.org/files/pdf/greengold_10-6-081.pdf

Raveendran Dudhlur said...

Hello Mr.Vishnu Shankar,

I am interested in cultivating Casuarina in my 5 acres of land near Chennai.

I am interested in getting more information on soil test for suitability of casuarina and also how to get drip irrigation system installed. We do have sufficient water supply, but would prefer to increase yield using drip irrigation.

Thanks in advance!

-Raveendran
raveendrand@gmail.com

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